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Solutions: Alternative Energy

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            wind turbines farm - animated              on this page:
Solar Power
Wind Power
Ocean Power
Nuclear Power

Hydrogen Fuel Technology
Bio-Fuels Technologies
Energy-Efficient Solutions

Reading Material

"If everyone reading this replaced the five most frequently used lights in their homes with compact flourescent bulbs,
which use a quarter of the energy of regular bulbs, our country's consumption of coal would plunge overnight."
— Erik Reese, in The Nation Magazine

U.S. energy consumption is 44 percent coal, 24 percent natural gas, 20 percent nuclear, 7 percent hydroelectric,
and 5 percent other (including wind & solar) — per Time Magazine pie chart, February 2010

U.S. electricity generation in 2013 was 39.1 percent from coal, 27.6% natural gas, 19.5% nuclear, 6.7% hydro, 4.2% wind, 2.0% solar,
1.0% wood, 0.7% petroleum, 0.5% waste, and 0.4% geothermal — per pie chart by Institute for Energy Research

General Alternative Energy Information

WM Solutions: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Page

WM Things To Worry About: Energy & Global Warming Page
WM Books On The Subject: Energy
WM Books On The Subject: Global Warming

British Petroleum statement on 'Renewable Energy' [March 2003]
Canadian Renewable Fuels Assn.
CB's energy conspiracy page
Alternative Energy Institute in Hope, Maine
Boots On The Roof renewable energy training program in California
Freedom From Oil pages at Jump Start Ford website
Pure Energy Systems Network [est. 2003]
Alliance To Save Energy based in Washington, DC
National Clean Energy Summit [Sept 2014 in Las Vegas, Nevada = #7.0]

Clean Power Finance []

Introduction to Zero Point Energy
Zero Point Energy News website
NJ's Free Energy pages
New Energy Foundation & Infinite Energy Magazine

Global Energy Network Institute

U.S. National
Interstate Renewable Energy Council
U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Information Portal
U.S. Dept. of Energy Renewable Energy Technology pages
U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory [est. 1974]
U.S. Dept. of Energy Alternative Fuels Data Center
Center for Resource Solutions
C.R.E. / Green-e Renewable Electricity Certification Program [est. 1997]
Americans for Energy Independence
Rocky Mountain Sustainable Living Fair [Sept 2005] in Fort Collins, CO
Energy Efficiency Global Forum & Exposition [May 2010 = #1] in Washington, DC
The National Center for Appropriate Technology [est. 1976] is based in Butte, Montana

U.S.A. By State
California Energy Commission
C.E.C. Transportation Choices
Californians for Renewable Energy
California's 'Flex Your Power' website
Montana Green Power
Albuquerque [NM] Alternative Energies
Wisconsin's 'Focus On Energy' site

R    Solar Power    R

installing rooftop solar panels

The Solar Harvest Organization
solar energy division of British Petroleum
Solar Energy Intl.
American Solar Energy Society
Shell Oil Solar
Solar Buzz news portal
Bret Parker's DIY solar panels & DIY windmaill generators website
Ubiquitous Energy [spun off from MIT in 2012] is developing technology and patents for affordable transparent photovoltaic solar panels

International Solar Energy Society
Schott closed their photovoltaic plant in New Mexico, USA 6/2012 and said that they are ending manufacturing worldwide  Schott AG of Germany 'Solar Solutions'
Solar Contact [est. 2011] website
Sun 21 solar/renewables non-profit of Switzerland { mostly German-language }
Solar Today [] based in Melbourne, Australia
Tata Power Solar manufacturing & retail [est. 1989] of India & Asia

système photovoltaïque by Adept Solaire in Roubaix (near Lille), France            Moser Baer Solar Limited {est. 2007} based in India, U.K., and Oregon USA

Prometheus Institute for Sustainable Development [est. 2003] in Cambridge, MA
Sundance Power Systems, Inc. [est. 1995] renewable energy of Weaverville, NC
North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association
Sol Design Lab of Austin, Texas
Sunergy Systems [est. 2005] in Seattle, WA

American Solar Energy Society [non-profit est. 1954] based in Boulder, Colorado         GOLD STAR: SolarWorld is America's largest solar manufacturer since 1975  SolarWorld - based in Germany, U.S. headquarters in Hillsboro, Oregon            SolarCity {western U.S. chain est. 2006} of Foster City, CA            Zing Solar [est. 2013] of Draper, Utah - serving UT, SoCal & NM            National Solar Network [] is based in Las Vegas, Nevada

First Solar, Inc. of Phoenix, Arizona
Solar Path, LLC of Southern Arizona
Solar Contact's listing of installers in Arizona

EE Solar in Pomona, CA
Solar Living Institute of Hopland, CA [est. 1998]
Solar Living Institute's SolFest® [Aug 2006 = #11]
Solar Depot of Petaluma, CA
California Solar Center [Rahus Institute]
Northern California Solar Energy Assn.
California Solar Energy Industries Assn.
D.S.H. Solar Electric of San Diego, CA
Marmol Radziner & Assocs. of Los Angeles, CA - solar prefab housing
Real Goods Solar, Inc. [est. 1978] of Colorado & California
Sunlight Electric Solar [est. 2002] in Sonoma, California

Crestone Solar School [est. 2007] workshops in Crestone, Colorado
Real Goods Solar, Inc. [est. 1978] of Colorado & California
Solar Contact's listing of installers in Colorado

New Mexico
New Mexico Solar Energy Assn. [est. 1972]
Solar Contact's listing of installers in New Mexico
New Mexico Solar Fiesta! [Aug 2011 = #11] in Albuquerque, NM
GO Solar of Santa Fe [est. 2010]
  {photo}  310 Solar™ Renewable Energy Systems [2008-2013] in Albuquerque, NM
Adi Pieper's ADI Solar Electric [est. 1999] in Santa Fe, NM
Advent Solar [est. 2002] in Albuquerque, NM

Affordable Solar Group [est. 1998] in Albuquerque, NM          Positive Energy Solar [est. 1997] of New Mexico

Cedar Mountain Solar Systems [est. 1976] in Santa Fe, NM
D.P.W. Solar {div. of PLP; est. 2002} in Albuquerque, NM
K.T.A.O. 101.9-FM solar-powered radio station [est. 1984] in Taos, NM
King Sun Solar [est. 2006] in Farmington, NM
Luz Energy Corp. [est. 1985] solar in SW Albuquerque, NM
Matrix Solar Technologies [est. 1996] in Albuquerque, NM
PNM's 5-megawatt solar farm [online 10/2011] in Alamogordo, NM
PNM's 2-megawatt solar farm [online 4/2011] in Albuquerque, NM
PNM's 5-megawatt Caja del Rio solar farm [under construction] in Santa Fe County, NM
PNM's 20-megawatt solar farm [online 8/2011] in Deming, NM
PNM's 5-megawatt solar farm [online 1/2012] in Las Vegas, NM
PNM's 5-megawatt solar farm [online 6/2011] in Los Lunas, NM
PNM's 7.5-megawatt solar farm [online 11/2013] near Tularosa, Otero County, NM
PNM's 10-megawatt solar farm [online 12/2015] in Rio Communities, NM
PNM's 10-megawatt solar farm [] south of Santa Fe, NM
PNM's 200-megawatt New Mexico Wind Energy Center {est. 2003] near House, NM
Private Energy Systems of Minnesota has several projects scattered across New Mexico
Germany's Schott AG 'Solar Solutions' factory [opened 2009] at Mesa del Sol in Albuquerque, NM
Solar Power Evolution, 2518 Eubank Blvd. in Albuquerque
Sunergy Solar in Albuquerque, NM
Taos EcoBuilders, Inc. [est. 2002] in Taos, NM

Vivint Solar LLC [est. 2011] based in Lehi, Utah

Solar Technology Hardware
solar energy systems from Sharp™
Solar Works [est. 1990] of Montpelier, Vermont
personal/portable SolarRoll™ power sources from Brunton®
portable SolarFlats™ panels from Brunton®
Solar Outdoor Lighting, Inc. [est. 1990] of Florida
Lumin Innovative Products solar-powered outdoor wireless access points
HelioVolt copper indium selenide thin-film solar power panels

Harold R. Hay & the Skytherm™ Solar Roof

historic Skytherm House [built 1973] in Atascadero, CA
Los Angeles Times / Business Section article (10 Nov 2007)

Solar Today Magazine  Solar Today Magazine [est. 2006]
published by the American Solar Energy Society
magazine available as part of A.S.E.S. membership {$39} - 9 issues per year
magazine back issues available via archives
magazine websiteA.S.E.S. website
Solar Guide  "The Easy Guide To Solar Electric For Home Power Systems" [1999]
by Adi Pieper

ADI Solar 3rd edition 11x8½ pb [3/2007] for $16.95
"The Easy Guide To Solar Electric, Part II: Installation Manual" [2003]
ADI Solar 11x8½ pb [11/2003] for $19.95
author's website
Solar House Passive Heating & Cooling  "The Solar House: Passive Heating & Cooling" [2002]
by Daniel D. Chiras

Chelsea Green Publng 10x8 pb [10/2002] for $19.77
author's website
Solartopia!  "Solartopia!: The Future of Energy" [2006]
by Harvey Wasserman

self-published 8x5 pb [1/2006] for $9.00
author's website
Solar Revolution  "Solar Revolution: The Economic Transformation of The Global Energy Industry" [2006]
by Travis Bradford

M.I.T. Press 9½x6½ hardcover [9/2006] for $16.47
author's website
Passive Solar House by Kachadorian  "The Passive Solar House: The Complete Guide To Heating & Cooling Your Home" [orig 1980; rev 2006]
by James Kachadorian

Chelsea Green Publng 10x7¾ hardcover and CD-ROM [9/2006] for $26.40
NOVA Saved By The Sun TV special  "NOVA: Solar Energy - Saved By The Sun" [P.B.S. aired April 2007]
An update on the urgency of replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels, including a comparison of U.S. foot-dragging and Germany's very successful photovoltaic buildout. Co-produced & directed by Steven Latham; co-produced & written by Larry Klein & Evan I. Schwartz; narrated by Lance Lewman • full credits at IMDb
P.B.S. widescreen color DVD [7/2007] for $12.99
Choosing Solar Electricity book by Brian Goss  
"Choosing Solar Electricity: A Guide To Photovoltaic Systems" [2010]
by Brian Goss

Centre for Alternative Tech 9½x6½ pb [3/2010] out of print/used
Idiot's Guide To Solar Power  "The Complete Idiot's Guide To Solar Power For Your Home"
[orig 2002, rev 2010] by Dan Ramsey & David Hughes

Kindle Edition from Alpha/Penguin [4/2010] for $16.99
Alpha Books 3rd Edition 9¼x7½ pb [4/2010] for $13.57
Solar Electricity Handbook by Michael Boxwell  "Solar Electricity Handbook: A Simple Practical Guide To Solar Energy - Designing and Installing Photovoltaic Solar Electric Systems" [2011] by Michael Boxwell
Kindle Edition from Greenstream Publng [1/2011] for $9.99
Greenstream Publng 4th Edition 9¼x7½ pb [1/2011] for $15.23
Greenstream Publng 3rd Edition 9x6 pb [3/2010] for $14.99

R    Ocean Power     R

wave energy & tidal energy & ocean thermal energy

U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
E.E.R.E. Ocean Tidal Power Consumer's Guide
tidal power entry at Wikipedia
ocean thermal energy conversion entry at Wikipedia
Oceana Energy Co. [est. 2005] of Washington, DC
Think Tidal website
Ocean Thermal Energy Corp. [est. 1998] of Pennsylvania & Hawai'i
California Energy Commission Ocean Energy site
State of Hawaii Renewable Energy pages: ocean thermal energywave energy

            R    Wind Power    R

"All the equipment for wind turbines is made outside the U.S.
because this country lags so far behind on the technology."
— Fran Korten, Yes! Magazine [2004]

"Cats kill about 500 million birds each year in the United States – more than 1,000 times the number
killed by power-generating wind turbines." — per New York Times

WindTurbines.net [est. 2010]: The Social Network for The Wind Turbine Community, based in South Carolina
wIndustry [est. 1999] non-profit based in Minnesota
G.E. Power megawatt wind turbines
An Hui Hummer Dynamo Co. Ltd. wind turbine manufacturer of China
E.D.F. Energies Nouvelles

Bret Parker's DIY solar panels & DIY windmill generators website

"Serious Wind": article by Bill McKibben [ July 2003 issue of Orion Magazine]
Southwest Windpower: Renewable Energy Made Simple
SkyStream™ home-size windmill systems
Bergey Windpower Co. of Norman OK [est. 1977]
WindStats Newsletter includes subscription to Windpower Monthly
Interwest Energy Alliance
Kern Wind Energy Assn. based in Bakersfield, CA
U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wind Technology Center
EnXco wind energy projects list (USA & elsewhere)
Pear Energy from wind farms [est. 2011] offices in FL, MA, MD
Iberdrola Renewables, LLC windfarms in USA

Taos [New Mexico] Wind Power, Inc.
Manzano Energy Park, LLC [approved 10/2010] under Private Energy Systems, Inc. of MN
New Mexico Energy, Minerals & Natural Resources Dept. / Energy Conservation & Mgt. Division
North American Wind Research & Training Center at Mesalands College in NM
Edison Mission Group High Lonesome Mesa 100 MW wind turbine farm near Willard, New Mexico
Edison Mission Group 120 MW wind turbine farm in Elida, New Mexico

World Wind Energy Assn.
American Wind Energy Assn.
European Wind Energy Assn.
Canadian Wind Energy Assn.
British Wind Energy Assn.
Irish Wind Energy Assn.
India Wind Energy Assn.
German Wind Energy Assn. EnglishDeutsch
South African Wind Energy Assn.
Finland Wind Energy Assn. EnglishSuomen
Australian Wind Energy Assn.
New Zealand Wind Energy Assn.

Le Éoliennes et l'Energie du Vent [French] Québec, Canada
Switzerland [French or German]
Norsk Vindkraft Forum [Norwegian]
IG Windkraft Österreich [Austria]
Svensk Vindkraftförenings [Swedish]
Estonian Wind Power Assn.
Polish Wind Power Assn.

Wind Energy Basics  
"Wind Energy Basics: A Guide to Small & Micro Wind Systems" [1999]
by Paul Gipe

Chelsea green 10x8 pb [4/99] for $13.97
Wind Energy Handbook  "Wind Energy Handbook" [2001]
by Tony Burton, David Sharpe, Nick Jenkins & Ervin Bossanyi

Wiley & Sons 9¾x6¾ hardcover [11/2001] for $142.03
Wind Energy in America book by Robert W. Righter  "Wind Energy In America: A History" [2003]
by Robert W. Righter

Univ Oklahoma Press 9x6 pb [8/2008] for $29.95
Univ Oklahoma Press 8¾x5¾ hardcover [2003] out of print/used
Wind Power For Dummies book by Ian Woofenden  "Wind Power For Dummies" [2009]
by Ian Woofenden

Kindle Edition from For Dummies [9/2009] for $13.19
For Dummies 9¼x7¼ pb [9/2009] for $14.95
Windfall 2010 documentary about wind turbine fields  "Windfall" documentary [festival circuit 2010, First Run Features Feb 2012]
83-minute docufilm co-produced & directed by Laura Israel; location filming in Lowville & Meredith & Tug Hill in New York; filmmakers attempt to expose 'the dark side' of renewable energy: there are side effects, it costs money to build wind farms . . . • featuring local residents & officials, and archive footage of T. Boone Pickens and U.S. Senators John Barrasso, Harry Reid & Bernie Sanders { same-titled movie & book are not related }
First Run Features widescreen color DVD [5/2012] for $15.96
credits at IMDbofficial movie sitewatch official trailer [2:41] at YouTube
Wind Energy In America Today book by Robert W. Righter  
"Windfall: Wind Energy In America Today" [2011] by Robert W. Righter
Thorough and even-handed report by history professor at University of Texas El Paso
{ same-titled movie & book are not related }
Kindle Edition from Univ Oklahoma Press [12/2011] for $16.91
Univ Oklahoma Press 9x6 pb [9/2011] for $17.80

R  Nuclear Power   R

Nuke Free [est. 8/2007] {not everybody wants nuclear power plants}
anti-nuclear activist Helen Caldicott, MD

Atomic U.S.A. Page at Spirit of America Bookstore
Atomic Film Festival Page at Spirit of America Bookstore

Thorium/Flouride Molten-Salt Nuclear Reactor Technology
molten-salt reactor entry at Wikipedia
Bruce Hoglund's Molten-Salt Interests fansite
Energy From Thorium Foundation [est. 9/2012]
55-minute lecture by Dr. Joe Bonometti [11/2008] at YouTube
Taylor Wilson's 2/2013 TED talk on small thorium/flouride molten-salt reactors

SuperFuel Thorium book by Richard Martin  "SuperFuel: Thorium, The Green Energy Source For The Future"
[2012] by Richard Martin

Kindle Edition from Palgrave Macmillan [5/2012] for $8.89
Palgrave Macmillan 9x6 pb [8/2013] for $13.78
Palgrave Macmillan 9½x6½ hardcover [5/2012] for $19.23
Thorium Energy Cheaper Than Coal book by Robert Hargraves  "Thorium: Energy Cheaper Than Coal" [2012]
by Robert Hargraves

Kindle Edition from ADVFN Books [11/2013] for $9.99
CreateSpace 9x6 pb [7/2012] for $22.50
Thorium The Eighth Element book by Brian Basham  "Thorium: The Eighth Element" pamphlet [2013]
by Brian Basham

Kindle Edition from ADVFN Books [11/2013] for 99¢
ADVFN Books 9x6 pamphlet [11/2013] for $3.02 {sic}

Hydride Nuclear Technology
Hyperion Power Generation of Santa Fe, New Mexico
Otis Peterson's Hyperion Power Generation of Santa Fe, New Mexico
company entry at Wikipedia

Pandora's Promise pro-nuclear energy docufilm  "Pandora's Promise" [indep Nov 2013]
"The most important movie about the environment since An Inconvenient Truth." — Chicago Tribune
Unless any new energy source is clean and non-CO2-emitting, the risk of fostering a devastating global climate catastrophe is all but certain. Co-produced, written & directed by Robert Stone; featuring Stewart Brand, Gwyneth Cravens, Mark Lynas, Richard Rhodes, Michael Shellenberger & Charles Till - plus footage of Fukushima, Chernobyl & Three Mile Island
Alive Mind color DVD [DUE June 2014] for $27.98
full credits at IMDbofficial movie sitemovie entry at Wikipedia
watch 5/2013 official trailer [2:17] at YouTube

R  Hydrogen Fuel Technology   R

Having just seen the "Who Killed The Electric Car?" documentary, I am clear that hydrogen energy
and hydrogen vehicles will not work. The clincher is that the Bush administration helped kill
the electric car in California in order to help the big businesses involved in the bogus hydrogen programs.
Scientific work on hydrogen fuel cells continues nonetheless.

American Hydrogen Assn.
Shell Oil Hydrogen
Hydrogen Cars Now [est. 6/2005]
Hawaii Hydrogen Initiative
Honolulu Clean Cities / Hawaii Hydrogen Initiative

Hydrogen Economy   "The Hydrogen Economy: The Creation of The Worldwide Energy Web & The Redistribution of Power On Earth" [2002]
by Jeremy Rifkin

"Recommended." – Time Magazine Green Century Special Issue
Tarcher Putnam 9¼x6¼ hardcover [9/2002] for $17.47
Hype About Hydrogen  "The Hype About Hydrogen: Fact & Fiction In The Race To Save The Climate" [2004] by Joseph J. Romm
Island Press 9&fracx6¼ hardcover [2/2004] for $17.00
National Academy of Sciences article/excerpt {in HTML} [3/2004] for $5.95
author's website 'Climate Progress'

Los Angeles Times
Saturday 14 February 2004
Main News Section / Science / In Brief [page A-14]

Production of Hydrogen From Ethanol Advanced
       from L.A. Times staff & wire reports

       University of Minnesota researchers say they have produced hydrogen from ethanol in a prototype reactor small and efficient enough to heat small homes and power cars. Current methods of producing hydrogen from ethanol require large refineries and lots of fossil fuels.
       The reactor is a 2-foot apparatus of tubes and wires that produces hydrogen from corn-based ethanol. A fuel cell, which acts like a battery, then generates power. The research appeared in the Dec. 13 issue of Science [Magazine].

Los Angeles Times
Monday 26 January 2004
California Section / Letters to the Editor [page B-10]

Many Bumps Await on 'Hydrogen Highways'
       Re "Governor Pushes for 'Hydrogen Highways,' " Jan. 20: I'm all in favor of "Hydrogen Highways," but there's a growing misconception about hydrogen fuel. In the hydrogen economy, hydrogen is not a source of energy but only a means of storing and transporting energy. The energy must come from elsewhere.
       Even though hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, there is no free hydrogen on Earth. It is all bound up in other compounds. Energy is required to separate the hydrogen from other compounds. This energy is then released when the hydrogen is 'burned'. Currently, almost all of the energy to produce hydrogen comes from use of fossil fuels, so our dependence on fossil fuels is not reduced, nor is pollution eliminated.
       The key to a successful hydrogen economy is a clean, renewable source of energy that can be used to generate the hydrogen.
       Gordon Rudd
       Laguna Beach, California

R  Bio-Fuel Technologies   R

Renewable Fuels Assn.: The Voice of The Ethanol Industry
National Corn Growers Assn. Ethanol Information
Los Angeles [CA] BioFuel, Inc.
National Biodiesel Board [est. 1992]
Biodiesel NOW [dot] com
Community Power Corporation [modular biopower systems & services]
Willie Nelson's Farm Fresh BioDiesel
Pellet Fuels Institute
Forest Energy Corp. of Show Low, AZ
Marcus Sharpe's biodiesel info page
Eric Case's Biodiesel Blog
Biodiesel Industries of Santa Barbara, CA
Shell Oil Biofuels
Grease Car Vegetable Fuel Systems
BioFuel Canada
Midwest Renewable Energy Assn. [est. 1990] in Custer, WI
Midwest Renewable Energy & Sustainable Living Fair [June 2006 = #17] in Custer, WI
Hemphasis website advocating 'Hemp for Fuel & Energy'
Hemp Industries Association [est. 1992] based in California

Southridge Ethanol of Dallas, TX

Fryer to the Fuel Tank  "From The Fryer To The Fuel Tank: The Complete Guide To Using Vegetable Oil As An Alternative Fuel" [1998?]
by Joshua Tickell

Tickell Energy Consultants 3rd edition pb [12/2000] for $24.95
Biodiesel / Energy Economy  "Biodiesel: Growing A New Energy Economy" [2005]
by Greg Pahl

Chelsea Green 9x6 pb [1/2005] for $12.24
How To Make Biodiesel  "How To Make Biodiesel" [2005]
by Dan M. Carter & Jon Halle

Low-Impact Living Initiative 9¼x6¼ pb [3/2005] for $18.00
Biodiesel America  "Biodiesel America: How To Achieve Energy Security, Free America From Middle-East Oil Dependence & Make Money Growing Fuel" [2005]
by Joshua Tickell

Tickell Energy Consultants pb [7/2005] for $34.95
Willie Nelson Biodiesel  "On The {^Clean} Road Again: Biodiesel & The Future of The Family Farm" [2007] by Willie Nelson
Fulcrum/Speaker's Corner 7x4½ pb [8/2007] for $9.95
Willie's official website
see also: National Family Farm Coalition [est. 1986] website
Do It Yourself Guide to Biodiesel book by Guy Purcella  "Do It Yourself Guide To Biodiesel: Your Alternative Fuel Solution For Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping The Planet" [2007]
by Guy Purcella

Kindle Edition from Ulysses Press [10/] for $9.99
Ulysses Press 9x6 pb [10/2007] for $10.85
Alcohol Can Be A Gas  "Alcohol Can Be A Gas!: Fueling An Ethanol Revolution For The 21st Century" [orig 1983; rev 2007]
by David Blume; Foreword by R. Buckminster Fuller

Before petrol/gasoline was invented, early automobiles ran on alcohol.
Intl. Institute for Ecological Agriculture 11x8½ pb [11/2007] for $31.02
Intl. Institute for Ecological Agriculture 11¾x8¾ hardcover [11/2007] for $59.00
official booksite
'Fuel' documentary promoting solutions to peak oil  "Fuel" documentary feature [Greenlight Sept 2009]
The 11-year personal journey of filmmaker & eco-evangelist Josh Tickell, focusing on inspiring viewers, by looking into our future and offering hope via a wide-range of renewable energy & bio-fuel solutions. Directed by Joshua Tickell; written by Johnny O'Hara; featuring Joshua Tickell, Barbara Boxer, Richard Branson, Larry Hagman, Woody Harrelson, Robert Kennedy Jr., Willie Nelson, Julia Roberts & Neil Young
Cinema Libre Studio widescreen color Blu-ray [1/2011] for $18.93
Cinema Libre Studio widescreen color DVD [6/2010] for $16.93
full credits at IMDbofficial movie site

Cow Power documentary film  "Cow Power" [indep Aug 2012]
Dairy farmers and others in the state of Vermont organized a program called 'Cow Power' to produce electricity and other byproducts from the tons of manure produced by dairy cows every day. Participants include Green Mountain Power, Green Mountain College, Long Trail Brewing Co., Blue Spruce Farm, Pleasant Valley Farms & Foster Brothers Farm. • Co-produced & directed by Allison Gillette
DVD/Blu-ray not yet available
not listed at IMDb • official movie sitewatch official trailer [2:24] at Vimeo

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
7 April 2014

Gasoline From Seawater
       The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (N.R.L.) has announced that they have manufactured long-chain hydrocarbons – that is essentially gasoline – entirely from seawater, and used the fuel to power a flying model aircraft.
       Using a patented electrochemical process, they have simultaneously extracted dissolved CO2 ions and created hydrogen gas from seawater. The resulting mixture of gases is then reformed into long-chain hydrocarbons in a chemical reaction.
       The key to the process is the realization that a liter of seawater contains 140 times as much CO2 as a liter of air. In seawater, nearly all of the CO2 is actually in the form of bicarbonate ions, which should make extraction from water fairly straightforward because of the electrical charge [that] they carry.
       Since it is entirely feasible to use non-fossil energy sources to power the process, the fuel created could be essentially fossil-free (carbon neutral) gasoline. The oceans and atmosphere exchange CO2 readily in massive quantities, so taking it from one place is functionally the same as taking it from the other.
       The N.R.L. press release puts the cost of their new process at between $3 and $6 per gallon.

Business Weekly Magazine
25 September 2001

Corn for Fuel: Not Such a Hot Idea?
       Commentary by Alan Hall, contributing editor

According to one scientist, more fossil-fuel energy is required to produce a gallon of ethanol than the energy you get from it.

       A new word – gasohol – found its way into the dictionary during the energy crisis of the early 1970s. Blends of gasoline and grain alcohol were produced to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and the government jumped in with tax breaks to help a fledgling industry convert corn to ethanol fuel. More recently, the blends have been promoted as a way to replace gasoline additives that pollute air and water and cut carbon dioxide emissions that may contribute to global warming. And now with rising uncertainty in the Middle East and the possibility of oil-supply disruptions, renewed calls for ethanol production can be expected.
       By some measures, the effort to cultivate a home-grown fuel has been a resounding success. A study by the California Energy Commission (CEC) found that 44 ethanol producers, most of them in the Midwest, are now converting about 7% of the annual corn crop into 2.2 billion gallons of ethanol a year at 57 facilities.
       The Renewable Fuels Assn. (RFA), a Washington (D.C.)-based industry group, says this flood of alcohol adds $4.5 billion a year to farm revenues, creates 195,200 jobs, pumps $450 million in taxes to states, and improves the U.S. balance of trade by $2 billion. Moreover, the RFA estimates that present use of ethanol fuels will reduce carbon emissions by more than 1.64 million tons during 2001.
       But to one agricultural scientist, the idea of distilling alcohol from corn for fuel just doesn't compute. David Pimentel of Cornell University has done the math. His bottom line: It takes more fossil-fuel energy to produce a gallon of fuel-grade ethanol than burning it will produce. Growing crops to produce fuel amounts to "unsustainable, subsidized food burning," charges Pimentel.
       A professor at Cornell's College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Pimentel conducted a detailed analysis of the corn-to-car-fuel process, which was published in the Encyclopedia of Physical Sciences and Technology in September.
       According to Pimentel, the 7,000 pounds of corn produced on an average acre of land can yield about 325 gallons of ethanol. But planting, growing, and harvesting that much corn requires about 140 gallons of fossil fuels and costs $347 – or about $1.05 per gallon of ethanol. And that's only to grow the grain. The corn must be crushed and fermented, then distilled and processed to extract the alcohol and produce 99.8% pure alcohol suitable for fuel.
       At the end of it all, alcohol production is gushing red ink, says Pimentel. He calculates that it takes 131,000 BTUs to produce a gallon of ethanol. But a gallon of ethanol has an energy value of only 77,000 BTUs. "About 70% more energy is required to produce ethanol than the energy that actually is in ethanol," says Pimental. The deficit: "Every time you make 1 gallon of ethanol, there is a net energy loss of 54,000 BTU."
       And the price at the pump? Ethanol from corn costs about $1.75 per gallon to produce, compared with about 95 cents to produce a gallon of gasoline. In addition, it takes 11 acres of land to produce the 850 gallons of alcohol needed to travel 10,000 miles – the amount of cropland needed to feed seven people for a year, Pimentel says.
       Even the approximately $1 billion a year now shelled out in the form of federal and state tax breaks doesn't balance the books, says Pimentel. Since about 70% of the corn grown in the U.S. becomes animal feed, the artificially high prices are reflected at the supermarket in the cost of meat, milk, and eggs.
       Then tack on some hidden costs. Pimentel argues that environmental damages would add on an additional 23 cents per gallon. He calculates that corn production erodes soil about 12 times faster than the soil can be reformed, and irrigating corn mines groundwater 25% faster than the natural recharge rate. "Corn should not be considered a renewable resource for energy production," he argues.
       Still, some compelling arguments can be made for producing fuel-grade ethanol. At the head of the list is phasing out MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether), an antiknock fuel additive introduced in 1976 as a substitute for additives using lead. By 2000, an estimated 4.6 billion gallons of MTBE were blended into gasoline in the U.S.
       Like its predecessor, tetra-ethyl lead, MTBE, too, had a downside. Soluable in water, MTBE has leaked into the ground from buried tanks and fuel spills. On Sept. 4, the Environmental Protection Agency published new Safe Drinking Water rules that require water systems to monitor for the presence of MTBE.
       Acting ahead of other states and the federal government, California Governor Gray Davis ordered that MTBE be phased out by 2003. In its stead: ethanol – an estimated 660 million to 950 million gallons a year, a four-fold increase over present demand in that state alone.
       For now, it's likely that supply will meet demand. Some 13 new distilleries are already under construction, and 34 others are in the planning stages. By 2005, the CEC estimates that 84 ethanol producers in the U.S. will be churning out nearly 4.5 billion gallons of grain alcohol a year.
       But does it make sense to turn the gas-guzzling family buggy into a food gobbler as well? Clearly, few envision the nation's automobiles running on a steady diet of ethanol. Alternatives, such as fuel cells, are already on the road. In addition, using ethanol as an additive can be justified, but corn isn't the only way to get it. Ethanol can also be produced chemically from natural gas, for example.
       Predictably, Pimentel's analysis was not greeted with enthusiasm by ethanol advocates. The RFA says the recent study is simply a "regurgitation" of earlier data that "has been fully refuted" by more recent studies. And the National Corn Growers Assn. has placed a point-by-point rebuttal on its Web site.
       Without question, developing sources of renewable energy should be given a high priority. Still, the message in Pimentel's analysis is clear: Whether or not his particular calculations stand further tests, a close scrutiny of the data may show that the economics are not always what they seem to be.

R  Energy-Efficient Solutions   R
Passive House Institute U.S.
Spirit of America Bookstore / Architecture / Natural Materials Homes
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Sustainability Sites Webring

browse the Home Design / Energy Efficiency books category at Amazon

Bottled Lightning Superbatteries book by Seth Fletcher  
"Bottled Lightning: Superbatteries, Electric Cars, and The
New Lithium Economy" [2011] by Seth Fletcher

Hill & Wang 9¼x6½ hardcover [5/2011] for $13.66

Bloom Energy [est. 2001] of Sunnyvale, California - office building fuel cells            Fuel Cell Today [est. 2001]

Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, Ltd. [est. 2000] of U.K.

R  Further Reading  R

Home Design > Energy Efficiency books category at Amazon
Sustainable Living > Energy Efficiency > Bestsellers books category at Amazon

Home Energy Magazine  Home Energy Magazine [est. 1984]
6 issues/12 months [USA only] for $67.35
magazine website
Quest for Zero Point  "Quest For Zero Point Energy: Engineering Principles For Free Energy" [2002] by Moray B. King
Adventures Unlimited 9x6 pb [1/2002] for $10.17
Zero Point   "The Hunt For Zero Point: Inside The Classified World of Anti-Gravity Technology" [2002] by Nick Cook
Broadway Books 8x5¼ pb [8/2003] for $10.17
Broadway Books 9½x6½ hardcover [8/2002] for $17.16
Powering Our Future  "Powering Our Future: An Energy Sourcebook For Sustainable Living"
[2005] by Kimberly K. Smith

iUniverse 9x6 pb [5/2005] for $19.95
from the Alternative Energy Institute
Energy Autonomy  "Energy Autonomy: The Economic, Social & Technological Case For Renewable Energy" [2007] by Hermann Scheer
Earthscan 8½x5¾ hardcover [1/2007] for $19.77
Apollo's Fire / Clean Energy Economy  
"Apollo's Fire: Igniting America's Clean Energy Economy" [2007]
by Jay Inslee & Bracken Hendricks

Island Press hardcover [10/2007] for $17.13
Alternative Energy For Dummies book by Rik DeGunther  "Alternative Energy For Dummies" [2009]
by Rik DeGunther

"a sober analysis of the problems facing alternative energy, along with realistic solutions"
Kindle Edition from For Dummies [5/2009] for $9.99
For Dummies 9x7¼ pb [5/2009] for $14.65
Smart Power book by Peter Fox-Penner  
"Smart Power: Climate Change, The Smart Grid, and The Future of Electric Utilities" [2010] by Peter Fox-Penner
Island Press 9x6 pb [4/2010] for $23.07
Island Press hardcover [4/2010] for $53.80
Why We Hate the Oil Companies book by John Hofmeister  "Why We Hate The Oil Companies: Straight Talk From An Energy Insider" [2010] by John Hofmeister {former president of Shell Oil, USA}
Although Hofmeister shifts the blame for energy problems from the corporations to the politicians, the reviewer consensus is that some of his pragmatic ideas may be useful.
Palgrave Macmillan 9¼x6¼ hardcover [5/2010] for $17.82
Hofmeister's Citizens for Affordable Energy website
Powers That Be, Global Energy book by Scott L. Montgomery  "The Powers That Be: Global Energy For The Twenty-First Century and Beyond" [2010] by Scott L. Montgomery
Univ Chicago Press 9x6¼ hardcover [7/2010] for $23.10

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