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Supreme Court of the U.S. [est. 1787]

The Working Minds Philosophy of Empowerment began with existentialism and Objectivism (Ayn Rand) but soon moved into economics and to politics.
The U.S. Constitution was created in 1787 and ratified in 1788, and cancelled by the U.S. Supreme Court on 21 January 2010 – the United States is today
a fascist country, and the activist push by the Working Minds website is largely about restoring constitutional rule in America.

Article 3, Section 1: The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts
as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts,
shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation
which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Article Three of the U.S. Constitution entry at Wikipedia

SCOTUS weblog [est. 2002] sponsored by Bloomberg Law

Supreme Court Resources at U.S. Library of Congress

The Supreme Court History Society [est. 1974] in Washington, DC

Oyez: The Supreme Court Multimedia Project


Timeline of Selected U.S. Supreme Court Cases and Events

  • 1789 Sept 24: Congress passed a Judiciary Act establishing an Attorney General and a Supreme Court with six justices.
  • 1790 Feb 1: The U.S. Supreme Court convened for the first time, in New York City.
  • 1809 Feb 20: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that no state can annul the judgments or determine the jurisdictions of federal courts.
  • 1857 March 6: U.S. Supreme Court Dred Scott v. Sanford decision, holding that a slave could not sue for his freedom in federal court.
  • 1879 May 5: U.S. Supreme Court decided Reynolds v. U.S., finding that religious beliefs, such as polygamy, are not a defense in criminal prosecutions.
  • 1886 May 10: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company that corporations are 'persons' having the same rights as human beings, based on the 14th Amendment (which was intended to protect the rights of former slaves).
  • 1896 May 18: The U.S. Supreme Court decided in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 that the principle of 'separate but equal' racial segregation was Constitutional. (The decision was overturned in 1954.)

  • 1922 Feb 27: The U.S. Supreme Court decision Leser v. Garnett upheld the 19th Amendment, which guarantees women the right to vote.
  • 1942 Dec 21: The U.S. Supreme Court decided 6-2 in Williams v. North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 that all states had to recognize divorces granted in Nevada.
  • 1946 Feb 18: California court case Mendez et al v. Westminster School District, in which a group of civic-minded parents of Orange County successfully sued to end segregation based on national origin (i.e. 'Mexican' kids) in their schools; precursor for Brown vs. Board of Education in May 1954.

  • 1953 March 9: The U.S. Supreme Court handed down the landmark U.S. vs. Reynolds decision, validating the government's bogus claim of privilege on matters of alleged national security, one of the precedents supporting the U.S.A. Patriot Acts of 2002 & 2004.
  • 1953 June 8: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in District of Columbia v. Thompson Co. - 346 U.S. 100 that restaurants in the D.C. area could not refuse to serve 'members of the Negro race'.
  • 1953 Oct 5: Former three-term Governor of California Earl Warren was sworn in as the 14th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court; he served until June 1969.
  • 1954 May 17: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that racially segregated public schools were inherently unequal, under the Fourteenth Amendment.
         Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site [opened May 2004]
  • 1954 May 17: The U.S. Supreme Court also ruled in the Bolling v. Sharpe case that established the Fifth Amendment as another basis for equal protection.
  • 1956 Nov 13: The U.S. Supreme Court agreed with a lower court's finding in Browder v. Gayle that discrimination against Afro-Americans on Montgomery, Alabama's public bus system was unconstitutional.

  • 1960 Dec 5: The U.S. Supreme Court decided in the landmark Boynton v. Virginia case that racial discrimination in interstate transportation was unconstitutional.
  • 1961 June 19: The U.S. Supreme Court decided in the landmark Mapp v. Ohio case that evidence obtained outside provisions of the Fourth Amendment may not be used in state or federal criminal prosecutions.
  • 1962 June 25: The U.S. Supreme Court decided in Engel v. Vitale {consolidated with the Murray v. Curlett case} that official or mandatory school prayers are unconstitutional.
  • 1962 Sept 10: The U.S. Supreme Court ordered the University of Mississippi to admit James Meredith, an Afro-American student.
  • 1963 March 18: The U.S. Supreme Court landmark Gideon v. Wainwright ruling requires a court-appointed attorney for those too indigent to pay for one, per the Sixth & Fourteenth Amendments.
  • 1963 June 17: The U.S. Supreme Court decided in Abington School District v. Schempp that official or mandatory school prayers are unconstitutional.
  • 1964 June 22: Important U.S. Supreme Court Escobedo v. Illinois decision specifying a suspect's right to legal counsel, per the Sixth Amendment; later clarified by Miranda v. Arizona in June 1966.
  • 1964 Dec 14: Important U.S. Supreme Court Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States {379 U.S. 241} decision affirming Congress's authority to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • 1965 June 7: The U.S. Supreme Court decided the landmark Griswold v. Connecticut case, that affirmed the individual's right to privacy, under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • 1965 July 13: President Lyndon B. Johnson nominated attorney Thurgood Marshall to be U.S. Solicitor General, the first Afro-American appointed to the post. (Johnson nominated Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court two years later.)
  • 1966 June 13: The U.S. Supreme Court decided the landmark Miranda v. Arizona case that criminal suspects must be informed of their constitutional rights to consult an attorney and to remain silent during interrogation.
  • 1967 June 12: The U.S. Supreme Court handed down the landmark Loving v. Virginia decision, striking down state laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
  • 1967 Oct 2: Swearing-in of Thurgood Marshall [1909-93] as Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court; he was the first Afro-American on the Supreme Court, and served until October 1991.

  • 1976 Jan 30: The U.S. Supreme Court handed down the landmark Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 decision that expenditure of money is a form of constitutionally-protected free speech.
  • 1992 June 18: The U.S. Supreme Court handed down the Georgia v. McCollum decision, ruling that criminal defendents could not use race as basis for excluding potential jurors from their trials.
  • 1998 Jan 10: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore that sexual harrassment at work can be illegal even when the offender and victim are of the same gender.

  • 2010 Jan 21: Fascist Chief Justice John Roberts and the U.S. Supreme Court declared America to be a fascist state in the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. case reversing a full century of election campaign finance restrictions on the ability of corporations to purchase any elected office that they want.
  • 2011 June 20: The U.S. Supreme Court struck another blow for fascism and against freedom and liberty in the Dukes v. Wal-Mart Stores [2000-2011] case by eliminating class action lawsuits against corporations.
  • 2014 April 2: Fascist Chief Justice John Roberts further destroyed democracy in McCutcheon v. F.E.C. 572 U.S.; the decision took away even more restrictions on political spending by millionaires & billionaires.
  • 2014 June 30: The Supreme Court's ludicrous Burwell v. Hobby Lobby decision provides that 'the religious beliefs of a corporation' {sic} can officially override the health care options of their individual employees, such as in denying women any insurance coverage for birth control – another step backward for America.

  • 2016 Feb 13: Justice Antonin Scalia [appointed 1986] died in his sleep; the worthless Republicans who control the U.S. Senate immediately established a policy of not reviewing or voting on any replacement nominated by President Obama.
  • 2016 March 16: President Obama officially nominated Judge Merrick Garland for the open U.S. Supreme Court Justice position; Congress continues to refuse to do their job, i.e. hold hearings and an up-or-down vote.
  • 2016 March 29: The Supreme Court’s first post-Scalia 4-4 decision in Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association harmed the Republican plan of not confirming Scalia's replacement: the decision as handed down is a victory for working people because the tie vote left the lower court's pro-union decision stand.


Books About The U.S. Supreme Court
browse Politics & Gov't/ United States / Judicial Branch books {800+ titles} at Amazon

Supreme Court & the Commander in Chief  "The Supreme Court and The Commander In Chief" [1976]
by Clinton Lawrence Rossiter

Cornell Univ Press 8¾x5½ pb [11/76] for $19.95
Cornell Univ Press hardcover [11/76] out of print/used
The Brethren / Inside The Supreme Court  "The Brethren: Inside The Supreme Court" [1979]
by Bob Woodward & Scott Armstrong

S&S 8½x5½ pb [7/2005] for $12.21
Avon mass pb [7/96] out of print/many used
S&S hardcover [12/79] out of print/many used
Storm Center / Supreme Court  "Storm Center: The Supreme Court In American Politics" [orig 1986; rev 2005]
by David M. O'Brien

W.W. Norton 7th edition 8¼x6½ pb [3/2005] for $19.00 9th edition
Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court  "The Oxford Companion To The Supreme Court of The United States" [1992]
Edited by Kermit L. Hall

Oxford Univ Press 10½x7½ hardcover [5/2005] for $40.95
bargain price hardcover [5/2005] out of print/used
Betrayal of America book by Vincent Bugliosi   "The Betrayal of America: How The Supreme Court Undermined The Constitution & Chose Our President" [2001] by Vincent Bugliosi
Thunder's Mouth Press 7½x5 pb [5/2001] for $9.95
Supreme Injustice / Hijacked Election 2000 book by Alan M. Dershowitz   "Supreme Injustice: How The High Court Hijacked Election 2000" [2001]
by Alan M. Dershowitz

Oxford Univ Press pb [10/2002] for $10.47
Oxford Univ Press 9½x6½ hardcover [6/2001] for $17.50
Velvet Coup book by Daniel Lazare  "The Velvet Coup: The Constitution, The Supreme Court & The Decline of American Democracy" [2001] by Daniel Lazare
Verso 7x5¾ hardcover [10/2001] for $14.95
Overruling Democracy book by Jamin B. Raskin  "Overruling Democracy: The Supreme Court vs. The American People" [2003]
by Jamin B. Raskin

"[The author] offers a host of proposals to make politics in the United States more democratic and vibrant." — Alexander Keyssar, L.A. Times Book Review Section
Routledge 9.4x6¼ hardcover [1/2003] for $19.25
Men In Black  "Men In Black: How The Supreme Court Is Destroying America" [2005]
by Mark R. Levin

A right-wing talk show host's whining fulmination against the Supreme Court, further tainted by raves from radio fool Limp Rushbaugh & disgraced politician Edwin Meese III
DO NOT buy this book!
Supreme Court Decisions that Shaped America book by Kermit Hall & John Patrick  "The Pursuit of Justice: Supreme Court Decisions That Shaped America" [2006]
by Kermit L. Hall & John J. Patrick

Oxford Univ Press 10½x8 pb [12/2006] for $20.05
Oxford Univ Press 10½x8½ hardcover [12/2006] for $46.08
Supreme Conflict  "Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of The Struggle For Control of The United States Supreme Court" [2007] by Jan Crawford Greenburg
Penguin Press 9¼x6¼ hardcover [1/2007] for $18.45
The Nine / Inside The Supreme Court by Jeffrey Toobin  "The Nine: Inside The Secret World of The Supreme Court" [2007]
by Jeffrey Toobin

listed #8 on TIME Top Ten Best Non-Fiction Books of The Year (12/2007)
Kindle Edition from Random House Digital [9/2008] for $11.99
Anchor Books 8x5¼ pb [9/2008] for $10.66
Doubleday 9¼x6 hardcover [9/2007] out of print/300+ used
The Oath, Obama White House & the Supreme Court book by Jeffrey Toobin  "The Oath: The Obama White House and The Supreme Court" [2012]
by Jeffrey Toobin

Kindle Edition from Random House Digital [9/2012] for $11.99
Anchor Books 8x5¼ pb [6/2013] for $12.91
Doubleday 9½x6½ hardcover [9/2012] for $20.40
Federalist Society book by Michael Avery & Danielle McLaughlin  "The Federalist Society: How Conservatives Took The Law Back From Liberals" [2013] by Michael Avery & Danielle McLaughlin
Kindle Edition from Vanderbilt Univ Press [6/2013] for $10.09
Vanderbilt Univ Press 10x7¼ hardcover [4/2013] for $25.37
The Roberts Court book by Marcia Coyle  "The Roberts Court: The Struggle For The Constitution" [2013]
by Marcia Coyle

Kindle Edition from Simon & Schuster Digital Sales [5/2013] for $12.74
Simon & Schuster 9½x6½ deckle-edge hardcover [5/2013] for $19.81
Supreme Court / One Person, One Vote book by J. Douglas Smith  "On Democracy's Doorstep: The Inside Story of How The Supreme Court Brought One Person, One Vote To The United States" [2014]
by J. Douglas Smith

Kindle Edition from Hill & Wang/Macmillan [6/2014] for $16.99
Hill & Wang 9¼x6¼ hardcover [6/2014] for $25.00

"A People's History of The Supreme Court" [Penguin 1999] by Peter Irons

"The Supremes' Greatest Hits, Revised & Updated Edition: The 37 Supreme Court Cases That
Most Directly Affect Your Life" [Oct 2009] by Michael G. Trachtman, Esq.

"Justice Brennan: Liberal Champion" [Oct 2010] by Seth Stern and Stephen Wermiel

"Making Our Democracy Work: A Judge's View" [Sept 2011] by Stephen Breyer

"The Oath: The Obama White House and The Supreme Court" [pb 6/2013] by Jeffrey Toobin also >> obama

"Out of Order: Stories from the History of the Supreme Court" [March 2013] by Sandra Day O'Connor

"Uncertain Justice: The Roberts Court and the Constitution" [6/2014] by Laurence Tribe & Joshua Martz

"Injustices: The Supreme Court's History of Comforting the Comfortable and Afflicting the Afflicted" [Nation Books 3/2015] by Ian Millhiser


Movies & TV About The U.S. Supreme Court
browse Politics & Gov't/ United States / Judicial Branch books {800+ titles} at Amazon

"First Monday In October" semi-comedy? movie [Aug 1981]

"Confirmation" TV movie [H.B.O. April 2016] /tt4608402/
The nomination of Judge Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court is called into question when former colleague Anita Hill testifies that he had sexually harassed her.


Important Justices of The U.S. Supreme Court
list of the Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court at Wikipedia

John Marshall [1755-1835, served as Chief Justice 1801-35
listed #7 on The Atlantic Monthly's Top 100 Most Influential Figures in American History [Dec 2006]

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., 1902-32
listed #53 on The Atlantic Monthly's Top 100 Most Influential Figures in American History [Dec 2006]
"Oliver Wendell Holmes" bio [1989] by Sheldon Novick

Charles Evans Hughes Sr., 1910-16 (resigned to run for President)

Louis Brandeis, 1916-39

Brandeis on Democracy  "Brandeis On Democracy" [1995] Edited by Philippa Strum
Louis D. Brandeis [1856-1941] was known as "The People's Attorney" for his investigations of corporate corruption, and was later appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court [1916-39]
Univ Press of KS 9x6 pb [1/95] for $19.94
Univ Press of KS 9¼x6¼ hardcover [1/95] for $29.95

Charles Evans Hughes Sr., Chief Justice 1930-41

Hugo Black, 1937-71

Felix Frankfurter, 1939-62

William O. Douglas, 1939-75

Earl Warren, Chief Justice 1953-69
listed #29 on The Atlantic Monthly's Top 100 Most Influential Figures in American History [Dec 2006]

William J. Brennan, Jr., 1956-90

Abe Fortas, 1965-69

Thurgood Marshall, 1967-91
listed #84 on The Atlantic Monthly's Top 100 Most Influential Figures in American History [Dec 2006]

Devil In The Grove book about Thurgood Marshall by Gilbert King  "Devil In The Grove: Thurgood Marshall, The Groveland Boys, and The Dawn of A New America"
[2012] by Gilbert King

New York Times bestseller, won the Pulitzer Prize for Non-Fiction; in 1946 Florida, Jim Crow policies were enforced by the Lake County sheriff; when a white girl cried rape, the Ku Klux Klan swarmed to Groveland, burning black-owned homes and chasing around after the four accused Afro-American teenagers. After one N.A.A.C.P. worker was murdered, lawyer Thurgood Marshall – even though he was quite busy preparing Brown v. Board of Education to go before the Supreme Court – stepped into the fray, resulting in a series of threats on his life. But he just would not back down . . .
Kindle Edition from HarperCollins Publrs [3/2012] for $9.60
Harper Perennial 8x5½ pb [2/2013] for $10.11
Harper 9½x6½ hardcover [3/2012] for $18.79
Harper hardcover [3/2012] out of print/used

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice 1969-86

Sandra Day O’Connor, 1981-2006
listed #9 on The Atlantic Monthly's Top 30+ Most Influential Living Americans [Dec 2006]

William Rehnquist, Chief Justice 1986-2005

Supreme Court book by William H. Rehnquist  
"The Supreme Court: How It Was, How It Is" [orig 1987, rev 2001]
by William H. Rehnquist [1924-2005]

Vintage 8x5¼ pb [2/2002] for $11.96
Knopf 9¼x6 pb [2004] out of print/many used
Knopf 9½x6½ deckle-edge hardcover [2/2001] for $35.00
A Court Divided  "A Court Divided: The Rehnquist Court & The Future of Constitutional Law" [2005] by Mark Tushnet
W.W. Norton 9½x6½ hardcover [1/2005] for $27.95

"The Partisan: The Life of William Rehnquist by John A. Jenkins(Oct 2, 2012)

Antonin Scalia [1936-2016], appointed 1986, died suddenly 2/2016

"Scalia: A Court of One" [] by Bruce Allen Murphy

David H. Souter [b. 1939] - appointed 1990, retired 2009]

Ruth Bader Ginsberg [b. 1933], serving since August 1993

John G. Roberts, Jr. [b. 1955], Chief Justice since September 2005

There is a meme going around that the 2016 U.S. National Election is not so much about taking/keeping the White House, but about the Supreme Court. Whoever does win the 2016 election for President can be expected to appoint one or more replacements for aging members of the Supreme Court, which could very well have more and longer-lasting consequences than anything else that the President might do while in office. (Contingent, of course, on events during 2015 & 2016.)

The nine justices in order by age are: Ruth Bader Ginsburg [born 1933, age 82]; Antonin Scalia [1936-2016, died at age 79]; Anthony Kennedy [born 1936, age 78]; Stephen G. Breyer [born 1938, age 76]; Clarence Thomas [born 1948, age 66]; Samuel A. Alito [born 1950, age 65]; Sonia Sotomayor [born 1954, age 60]; Chief Justice John G. Roberts
[born 1955, age 60]; and Elena Kagan [born 1960, age 55]

v                    v

Impeachable Members of The U.S. Supreme Court

Impeachment Handbook  
"Impeachment: A Handbook" [1974 classic]
by Charles L. Black, Jr.; Foreward by Akhil Reed Amar of Yale

Yale Univ Press 8x5 pb [10/98] for $11.95
Yale Univ Press 8¼x5¼ hardcover [10/98] for $27.00

Clarence Thomas
Assistant Attorney General of Missouri [1974-77]
attorney with the Monsanto Chemical Company in St. Louis, Missouri [1977-81]
chairman of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (E.E.O.C.) [1982-90]
appointed Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1991

should be impeached for violating his oath of office, including fundraising for the Republican Party,
and for not recusing himself (his wife is a paid lobbyist for the TEA Party)

Keeper of the Flame  "The Keeper of The Flame: The Supreme Court Opinions of
Justice Clarence Thomas, 1991-2005" [2006]
by Henry Mark Holzer

Booklocker 9x6 pb [2/2006] for $18.00

Samuel Alito, appointed 2006
should be impeached for violating his oath of office

v                     v

Possible Replacements for Impeached Justices of The U.S. Supreme Court

Judge Jed S. Rakoff
serving as U.S. District Judge for the Southern District of New York [apptd 3/1996, senior 12/2011]
official websitefaculty homepage at Columbia Law Schoolentry at Wikipedia

Judge Merrick Garland
serving on U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit [apptd 1997, Chief Judge since 2013];
nominated 16 March 2016 by President Obama for U.S. Supreme Court Justice (treasonous blockage by Senate Republicans)
official websiteentry at Wikipedia

v                    v

There are no guarantees in this existential Universe. Likewise, in Nature there is no punishment, only consequences.
Delve into any of the line items above and that self-education will deliver to you an advantage over your fellows,
who are blind sheeple complaining that the Universe makes no sense.

[copyright 2013-2016 by Gary Edward Nordell, all rights reserved]

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Working Minds Philosophy of Empowerment Source Document
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(the first four chapters of the book "Working Minds: A Philosophy of Empowerment")
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